Heart Health

Eating Avocados Reduces Bad Cholesterol

"Avocados have beneficial effects on cardio‐metabolic risk factors that extend beyond their heart‐healthy fatty acid profile" Read the rest of this entry »

Cortisol- Its Role in Stress, Inflammation, and Indications for Diet Therapy

"Cortisol’s far-reaching, systemic effects play many roles in the body’s effort to carry out its processes and maintain homeostasis." Read the rest of this entry »

Diabetes and Depression Combination Raises Heart Attack Risk

This article presents evidence that links a measure of experienced state of  well-being generated in the mid-brain (depression) with a metabolic condition (diabetes) and the risk of myocardial infarction (heart attack.  All three systems are fed by the vagus (ninth cranial) nerve and can be regulated by mindfulness practices.

It was downloaded from open source: http://www.medpagetoday.com/MeetingCoverage/EASDCardio/41896


Diabetes and Depression Combo Hikes MI Risk

Published: Sep 26, 2013 | Updated: Sep 27, 2013

By Todd Neale, Senior Staff Writer, MedPage Today
Reviewed by Robert Jasmer, MD; Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco and Dorothy Caputo, MA, BSN, RN, Nurse Planner

BARCELONA — Individuals who have both diabetes and depression have an increased likelihood of having a myocardial infarction (MI), a large Swedish study affirmed.

The odds of having an MI compared with individuals without either condition were greatest among those ages 45 to 64, with the strongest association seen in women (OR 7.1, 95% CI 6.1-8.2), according to Karin Rådholm, of Linköping University in Sweden.

The corresponding odds ratio for men in that age group was 2.8 (95% CI 2.5-3.2), Rådholm reported at the European Association for the Study of Diabetes meeting here.

The chances of having an MI were also elevated — but to a lesser extent — in men and women who had either diabetes or depression, but not both.

Previous studies have shown an association between diabetes and depression, and a study published last year showed that treating both conditions simultaneously in the primary care setting was associated with improved glycemic control. Patients with both conditions have been shown to have an increased cardiovascular risk.

Rådholm and colleagues explored the link between diabetes, depression, and MI using data on 3,738,524 individuals ages 45 to 84 from Swedish national registries of prescription drug use, hospitalizations, and deaths. The analysis excluded those who had had an MI before the beginning of the study period.

Prescriptions for medications for diabetes and depression were used as surrogates for the conditions themselves.

The researchers divided the patients into four groups, which could be shuffled each of the 3 years of the study, based on drug use:

  • Neither type of medication
  • Anti-diabetics only
  • Antidepressants only
  • Both types of drugs

During the 3-year follow-up, 1.2% of the participants had a first MI. Of those, 37% were fatal.

In the older half of the cohort (ages 65 to 84), all three of the drug groups carried an increased likelihood of having an MI, with odds ratios ranging from just over 1.0 to about 3.0 compared with non-users. The greatest odds were observed in those taking both types of medication and in women versus men.

The findings were similar in the younger half of the cohort (ages 45 to 64), with odds ratios ranging from just over 1.0 to about 7.0. The results were not changed by adjustment for the use of anti-hypertensives.

The findings were not surprising, according to Ewan Pearson, PhD, MBBChir, of the University of Dundee in Scotland. “It’s a very nice, large study that establishes the fact that people with diabetes and people with depression have higher rates of cardiovascular events,” said Pearson, who co-chaired the session at which Rådholm presented the results.

What is noteworthy is the large sample size used in the analysis, he said.

“A study of 3.7 million is incredible,” he said. “It just shows the utility of these massive population resources that Sweden has access to.”

Rådholm acknowledged that the study was limited by the lack of information on the indications for use of antidepressants, noting, for example, that tricyclics can be used for neuralgias and other conditions. The analysis also lacked information on important confounders, such as smoking, lipid levels, and lifestyle.

Rådholm did not report any conflicts of interest.

Vegans show lower BMI and obesity rates than meat-eaters

This article is self explanatory.  Note the setting in which the study was done however.  Seventh-Day Adventist Communities are atypically more cohesive than those of mainstream Americans. They also have been practicing social values that exemplify, “clean, spiritually intentional living” for several generations. BMI stands for base metabolism index.


It was downloaded from open source Huffington Post.                   http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/10/05/vegetarians-slimmer-meat-eaters-weight_n_4039441.html

Vegetarians Slimmer Than Meat-Eaters, Study Finds

Posted: 10/05/2013 9:49 am EDT

Vegetarians may not only be more likely to outlive their meat-eating counterparts, they could have a leg up in the weight department, too.

A new study from Loma Linda University researchers shows an association between diet type and weight, with vegetarians having a lower body mass index than non-vegetarians. Interestingly, researchers found this association despite both groups in the study having similar caloric intake.

The Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics study is based on data from the Adventist Health Study 2, which includes dietary data from five groups: meat-eaters, semi-vegetarians (occasional meat-eaters), pesco-vegetarians (vegetarians who eat fish), lacto-ovo vegetarians (vegetarians who consume dairy) and vegans (who don’t consume any animal products). Data was collected between 2002 and 2007 from 71,751 Seventh-Day Adventist men and women, with an average age of 59.

Caloric intake was similar among all dietary patterns — about 2,000 calories a day — with the one exception being the semi-vegetarians, who consumed 1,707 calories a day.

Researchers found that average BMI was lowest among vegans, while average BMI was highest among the meat-eaters. Looking specifically at obesity (defined as having a BMI over 30), researchers found that vegans had the lowest percentage of people who were obese — just 9.4 percent — while meat-eaters had the highest percentage of people who were obese — 33.3 percent. About 24 percent of semi-vegetarians were obese, 17.9 percent of pesco-vegetarians were obese, and 16.7 percent of lacto-ovo vegetarians were obese.

Even though calorie intake was similar across all the groups, there were differences in the types of nutrients consumed. Meat-eaters had the lowest intake of plant proteins, beta carotene, fiber and magnesium, and the highest intake of heart disease-linked fatty acids.

Of course, diet isn’t the only factor in weight — the study didn’t examine other factors, such as exercise or socioeconomic status. It merely showed an association between eating patterns and weight, not a cause-and-effect relationship.